M. Abrams, Professionalism in Politics, Socialist Commentary April, pp.3-5, 1962.

K. Asp and P. Esaiasson, The Modernization of Swedish Campaigns: Individualization, Professionalization, and Medialization, Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences, pp.73-90, 1996.

P. R. Baines and J. Egan, Marketing and political campaigning: mutually exclusive or exclusively mutual?, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol.4, issue.1, pp.25-34, 2001.
DOI : 10.1108/13522750110364541

F. Bicchi, J. Blondel, and P. Svensson, The European Parliament Campaign, 2003.

J. G. Blumler and D. Kavanagh, The Third Age of Political Communication: Influences and Features, Political Communication, vol.48, issue.3, pp.209-230, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-9248.00157

J. G. Blumler and M. Gurevitch, ???Americanization??? Reconsidered: U.K.???U.S. Campaign Communication Comparisons Across Time, pp.380-404, 2001.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511613852.019

. Entman, Mediated Politics: Communication in the Future of Democracy

H. D. Clarke, D. Sanders, M. C. Stewart, and P. Whiteley, Political Choice in Britain, 2004.

R. Corbett, Academic Modelling of the Codecision Procedure: A Practitioner's Puzzled Reaction, European Union Politics, vol.1, issue.3, pp.373-381, 2000.

F. Esser and J. Strömbäck, Comparing Election Campaign Communication The Handbook of Comparative Communication Research, pp.289-307, 2012.

D. M. Farrell, Campaign Modernization and West European Party, Political Parties in the New Europe: Political and Analytical Challenges, pp.63-84, 2002.

D. M. Farrell and P. Webb, Political Parties as Campaign Organizations, Parties without Partisans, pp.102-125, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/0199253099.003.0006

D. M. Farrell, Campaign Strategies and Tactics Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective, 1996.

R. Gibson and A. Römmele, A Party-Centered Theory of Professionalized Campaigning'. The Harvard International Journal of Press, Politics, vol.6, issue.4, pp.31-43, 2001.

R. Gibson and A. Römmele, Measuring the Professionalization of Political Campaigning, Party Politics, vol.30, issue.10, pp.321-360, 2009.
DOI : 10.1177/1354068809102245

D. P. Green and J. K. Smith, Professionalization of Campaigns and the Secret History of Collective Action Problems, Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol.15, issue.3, pp.321-339, 2003.
DOI : 10.1177/0951692803015003005

D. C. Hallin and P. Mancini, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics, 2004.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511790867

A. F. Heath, M. Roger, J. K. Jowell, and . Curtice, The Rise of New Labour: Party Policies and Voter Choices, 2001.
DOI : 10.1093/0199245118.001.0001

C. Holtz-bacha, Professionalisation of Politics in Germany, pp.63-79, 2007.

L. Hooghe, G. Marks, and C. J. Wilson, Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions on European Integration?, Comparative Political Studies, vol.35, issue.8, pp.965-989, 2002.
DOI : 10.1177/001041402236310

H. Ingram and T. Desombre, Teamwork: Comparing Academic and Practitioners' Perceptions'. Team Performance Management, pp.16-22, 1999.
DOI : 10.1108/13527599910263116

D. Kavanagh, Election Campaigning: The New Marketing of Politics, 1995.

J. Lees-marshment and D. G. Lilleker, Knowledge sharing and lesson learning: consultants' perspectives on the international sharing of political marketing strategy, Contemporary Politics, vol.3, issue.37, pp.343-354, 2012.
DOI : 10.1177/016344398020002006

J. Lees-marshment, The Marriage of Politics and Marketing, Political Studies, vol.30, issue.10, pp.692-713, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-9248.00337

D. G. Lilleker, K. Koc-michalska, E. J. Schweitzer, M. Jacunski, N. Jackson et al., Informing, engaging, mobilizing or interacting: Searching for a European model of web campaigning, European Journal of Communication, vol.26, issue.3, pp.195-213, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/0267323111416182

D. G. Lilleker and J. , Marketing, Political, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118541555.wbiepc125

D. G. Lilleker and R. Negrine, Professionalization: Of What? Since When? By Whom, Politics, vol.7, issue.4, pp.98-103, 2002.

M. Lisi, The professionalization of campaigns in recent democracies: The Portuguese case, European Journal of Communication, vol.23, issue.1, pp.259-276, 2013.
DOI : 10.1080/105846099198596

P. J. Maarek, Campaign Communication and Political Marketing, 2011.

S. Mainwaring and E. Zoco, Political Sequences and the Stabilization of Interparty Competition, Party Politics, vol.57, issue.3, pp.155-178, 2007.
DOI : 10.1177/1354068807073852

P. Mancini, New Frontiers in Political Professionalism, Political Communication, vol.16, issue.3, pp.231-245, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/pa/52.1.46

T. Moring, J. Mykkänen, L. Nord, and M. Grusell, Campaign Professionalization and Political Structures: A Comparative Study of Election Campaigning in Finland and Sweden in the 2009 EP Elections, pp.45-60, 2011.

L. L. Strömbäck and . Kaid, European Political Communication: Campaign Strategies, Media Coverage, and Campaign Effects in European Parliamentary Elections

R. M. Negrine, The Transformation of Political Communication, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-137-02139-7

R. Negrine and D. G. Lilleker, The Professionalization of Political Communication: Continuities and Change in Media Practices, European Journal of Communication, vol.17, issue.3, pp.305-323, 2002.
DOI : 10.1177/0267323102017003688

R. Negrine and S. Papathanassopoulos, The 'Americanization' of Political Communication'. The International Journal of Press, Politics, vol.1, issue.2, pp.45-62, 1996.

R. Negrine and P. Mancini, The Professionalization of Political Communication, 2007.

L. Nord, Still the Middle Way: A Study of Political Communication Practices in Swedish Election Campaigns, The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, vol.11, issue.1, pp.64-76, 2006.
DOI : 10.1177/1081180X05284040

P. Norris, A Virtuous Circle, 2000.

S. Papathanassopoulos, R. Negrine, P. Mancini, and C. Holtz-bacha, Political Communication in the Era of Professionalisation, pp.9-25, 2007.

B. Pfetsch, Political Communication Culture in Western Europe: Attitudes of Political Actors and Journalists in Nine Countries, 2014.
DOI : 10.1057/9781137314284

F. Plasser and G. Plasser, Global Political Campaigning: A Worldwide Analysis of Campaign Professionals and Their Practices, 2002.

F. Plasser, C. Scheucher, and C. Senft, Is There a European Style of Political Marketing? A Survey of Political Managers and Consultants, pp.89-112, 1999.

. Newman, Handbook of Political Marketing, Thousand Oaks: Sage

F. Plasser, American Campaign Techniques Worldwide'. The Harvard International Journal of Press, Politics, vol.5, issue.4, pp.33-54, 2000.
DOI : 10.1177/1081180x00005004003

J. C. Rogers, G. Terrell, and . Williams, Comparative Advertising Effectiveness: Practitioners' Perceptions versus Academic Research Findings', Journal of Advertising Research, vol.29, issue.3, pp.22-36, 1989.

M. Scammell, Designer Politics: How Elections Are Won, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-349-23942-9

J. Strömbäck, Selective Professionalisation of Political Campaigning: A Test of the Party-Centered Theory of Professionalised Campaigning in the Context of the, 2006.

J. Tenscher and J. Mykkänen, Transformations in Second-Order Campaigning: A German-Finnish Comparison of Campaign Professionalism in the European Parliamentary Elections, Central European Journal of Communication, vol.6, issue.2, pp.171-187, 2004.

J. Tenscher and J. Mykkänen, Two Levels of Campaigning: An Empirical Test of the Party-Centred Theory of Professionalisation'. Political Studies, 2014.

J. Tenscher, J. Mykkänen, and T. Moring, Modes of Professional Campaigning, The International Journal of Press/Politics, vol.57, issue.1, pp.145-168, 2009.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511609343

J. Tenscher, Professionalisierung nach Wahl. Ein Vergleich der Parteienkampagnen im Rahmen der j??ngsten Bundestags- und Europawahlk??mpfe in Deutschland, Die Bundestagswahl 2005: Analysen des Wahlkampfes und der Wahlergebnisse, pp.65-95, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-531-90536-5_4

J. Tenscher, Massenmedien und politische Kommunikation in den Ländern der Europäischen Union, Die EU-Staaten im Vergleich, pp.412-447, 2008.

J. Tenscher, First- and second-order campaigning: Evidence from Germany, European Journal of Communication, vol.17, issue.2, pp.241-258, 2013.
DOI : 10.1177/1940161208319097

G. U?ur, Americanisation of Political Communication, Canadian Social Science, vol.8, issue.3, pp.1-7, 2012.

S. Ward and D. Owen, Making a Difference: A Comparative View of the Role of the Internet in Election Politics, 2008.

J. Xifra, Americanization, Globalization, or Modernization of Electoral Campaigns? Testing the Situation in Spain, American Behavioral Scientist, vol.34, issue.2, pp.667-682, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/0002764211398086